High levels of histamine and its intolerance can be caused by many factors and cause many problems in everyday life. Headaches, pruritus, rhinitis, bronchospasm, AD, urticaria, low blood pressure, diarrhea can mark allergies, and in fact can be caused by histamine intolerance. The intolerance of histamine is a relatively recent disease entity, which is the main reason for its rare diagnosis. Diagnosis is even more difficult because of the fact that this disease is often caused by many factors that can change over time. The symptoms of histamine intolerance will bind to specific H1-H4 receptors, which will cause symptoms on the part of individual systems.
H1 receptors are present in the respiratory tract, blood vessels, and brain. They will, therefore, cause reactions such as dilation or increase of blood vessel permeability, smooth muscle spasms. These reactions, in turn, may cause symptoms such as diarrhea, uterine contractions, bronchospasm, erythema, etc.
H2 receptors are present in smooth muscle, leukocytes, heart, brain and stomach. They will affect the secretion of enzymes and heart action.
H3 receptors are located in the hypothalamus and act as a relay, which indirectly means that they can affect mood swings.
H4 receptors are present in the small intestine, heart, leukocytes and bone marrow.
What is histamine?
Histamine is a mediator of inflammation and is involved in allergic and pseudo allergic reactions. The mechanisms of the two reactions are different, but both will show relatively similar symptoms.
What are the reasons for the high level of histamine and its intolerance?
The direct cause of histamine intolerance is the lack of balance between histamine present in the body and its degradation. The direct cause of high levels of histamine and its intolerance may be a decrease in the activity of the DAO enzyme and HNMT (mutations).
The intermediate substrate for high levels of histamine in every human may be different. To reduce or eliminate symptoms, the cause of this should be addressed.
At the basis of histamine intolerance may be too much histamine production (apparent food allergy) or excessive secretion from mast cells and basophils (dependent IgE allergy).
Intestinal diseases (SIBO, IBS) and microbiota disorders will also play a major role here.
Another factor may be the high intake of food biogenic amines with food (meat – mainly long-kept, fish, cheese, prawns etc.).
Other factors that will indirectly influence the high level of histamine or increase its intolerance may be:
- food intolerances
- celiac disease
- mycoses, yeast infections
- increased epithelial permeability (may also be the result of the above, positive feedback driving further reactions)
- MTHFR mutations
- “Chemistry” in food (preservatives, improvers, scavengers, aromas)
- air pollution
- some drugs eg aspirin, steroids (due to their action on enterocytes), contrast agents
In addition to mediating allergic reactions or those from the pseudoallergenic spectrum, histamine is one of the mediators in Crohn’s disease, and its activity increases in proportion to the intensity of symptoms. High levels of histamine were also present in ulcerative colitis (CU) and allergic enteropathy. Similar conclusions regarding the increased histamine level were drawn by scientists studying histamine secretion in food allergies.
Antihistamines are effective in their action, however, the side effects of taking them often induce patients to change their way of dealing with the disease or to support treatment to reduce the doses of medication.
What can help in natural lowering of histamine levels?
- RIGHT HYDRATION
- low-histamine unprocessed, diet
- elimination or reduction of allergenic factors (including cross-allergies) from the diet
- reducing exposure to “stressful” factors (stress for your body is also air pollution, sleeping, etc.)
- moderate physical activity in the fresh air
- omega 3
- vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin D
- DAO supplementation (shortage)
- targeted (individual) target therapy (with an emphasis on Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bifidobacter)
- disodium cromoglycate
- selenium (under the supervision of a doctor / clinical dietitian)
What can lead to histamine intolerance?
Symptoms that occur at the beginning are just the tip of the iceberg, because high levels of histamine can contribute to many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and others.
The above information is for information purposes and can not replace medical and dietary advice.